Social Medias are the trending topic among people that helps them to share vital information regarding various social issues across the world. Apart from being a medium of information sharing it also serves as a great mode of entertainment and business promotions among people. These social platforms consist of numerous websites that greatly differ from each other based on the type of service they provide, some would help people to share images, and some would provide videos, and some would provide both. So based on the interest of people these websites has earned a quite a number of audience across the world. Ever heard of YouTube? It is one of popular video sharing website that helps people to share their videos with the outside world and get other people’s response by means of like, comments and the subscribing facilities. Today there are even business organizations available that help people to get large number of subscribers more easily in a very short period of time. And these services packages greatly differ based on the interest of the people, if someone wants to buy usa subscribers all it requires is to select the corresponding package of service to get the desired results.
Online and the service packages!
Nowadays people pay greater attention towards their social life more than anything else. This is so true in case of the business organization where their popularity determines their business profits among people so many of the business organizations make greater efforts in attracting more people towards them. One has to understand that the number of followers or subscribers is all about the way of representing one’s organization in these platforms. But it is not possible for all the organizations to have a good start especially in terms of any of the new organizations; irrespective of their quality of their business services it is not easy to attain a large number of followers in the start. In such cases, there are many organizations that provide the high quality of followers and the like features on various packages. Rantic is one among such organization that provides such packages for YouTube videos. Thus if someone wants to buy usa subscribers then one could find numerous service packages to meets the various requirements of all kinds of people.
Nowadays, the importance of using computer has been increasing day by day. We have almost reached the stage of not doing anything without the computer. Yes, there are lots of software have introduced to take care of the works we do in our life and business. With the help of that software, everything would be easy to finish. Here, LIMS is one type of software which has used in the laboratories in order to store the files and documents safely for the ease of access. Here, this LIMS stands for laboratory information management system. This has been used in the medial labs to store the up-to-date information and records into the system. With this software, you can manage and control those details thus saving the money and time. Through this LIMS software, you can easily locate the stored information or documents can be easily fulfilled. If you are in the need of using this type of software, you can get this software from the right source like lablynx online source. So, get this source to buy the quality LIMS software.
Benefits of using LIMS software
The LIMS is one type of software which has used for the purpose of laboratory use. By this using this software, the human error can be solved in storing the details and functions of laboratory. With this system, you can easily locate the information which have stored in this software. Apart from these things, you can obtain many benefits and such are listed below to know. If you wanted to get to know such interesting elements of this LIMS software, go through the given points.
- Automatic and validated calculation
- Data mining & reports
- Electronic capture of labs data
- Instrument calibration
- Maintenance status tracking
- Reagent status tracking of laboratory
- Can easily track which instruments have used in laboratory
- Event triggered reporting will be done by this LIMS software
These are the benefits which care provided by this LIMS software. If you want to get this type of software for your lab then reach out lablynx online source to buy this software for the affordable price.
When it comes to our weddings, we’re naturally very exciting to see our special day play out like the perfect day we have in our minds. Planning a wedding can be an exhausting activity, because we want that perfect day. However, this might lead you to put a little less effort into the, admittedly less important, honeymoon, and that’s a shame. After all, while your wedding is the true celebration of your love for one another, the honeymoon is the wind down from the overwhelming excitement, and stress, of the wedding, and the planning thereof. The honeymoon is an important part of the wedding process, so you want to get it right, too. Here are a few suggestions.
First and foremost, the honeymoon is a type of vacation, and so all of the vacation options are, inherently, honeymoon options, as well. Therefore, something like a trip to the beach, or, if you’re feeling fancy, renting a beach house, could just the thing for you. Especially when you consider the romantic potential of a beach setting. The crashing waves, the seagulls, the twilit surface of the water both dark and shimmering.
Or, maybe something like Seaworld is more up your alley. Maybe something more tourist-y is what you and your new spouse would want to celebrate your marriage, so a sightseeing tour across Europe is nothing to sneeze at, both in terms of quality and the cost, unfortunately. The important thing to remember is that our honeymoon doesn’t have to line up with traditional values. It just has to please you and your significant other, so it could be a gaming convention, if you want. The sky’s the limit.
In this world, the number of people living healthy is minimal. Numerous of health problems do affects the people and disturbs them to follow their daily routine. People who bearing the acute and chronic pain are huge on number, the cause of the pain may differ for every people but they are facing agony on the daily routine. When the pain increases, both the physical health and the mental health are turns chaos. It often leads the people to the depression. It is prominent to get the reputed treatment and cure the cause of the problems to get rid of the pain and the agony faced by the pain.
Prefer the specialist on pain management:
Curing the cause is never being a simple process as you think. It needs your co-operation and efforts massively. Sometimes, the cause may get cleared with the medicines while on the other time you need to exercise or do any other things. Meet the pain management doctoron the society, they helps you to clear the problems you have. But you must choose the reputed one on the markets which is the trickiest one. Huge number of professionals is available on the markets which may complicate to reach the best one. You must analyze their reputation on the markets and years of experience on treating the people. Also consider the treatment techniques on mind while analyzing them. The professional with experience, can find the cause with minimal time and treat you as soon as possible. At first they try to reduce the pain and save you from the agony that you are facing. Once the pain is eased, they can be able to find the efficient way to treat the causes. When getting the treatments, you must follow the advice of the doctor without making any choice. It helps to clear the problems with the estimated time. f
Tips to use the internet efficiently:
In this decade, it is possible to get the appointments of the doctors over the online. Use those options and minimize the efforts of meeting the specialist. In the last century, you should wait for the time to get the appointments but now the time has changed. You can meet them with the minimal efforts. Consult the people who have good idea on selecting the specialist or check them over the internet. Reading the reviews about their quality of service is an wise task done by the people.
Right from social media to websites, memes are highly trending. Some people tend to refer memes just for fun and for some people this is a great hobby. There are also some people who tend to make use of memes in order to convey messages in a funny and interesting way. This is because the message which is conveyed through memes can reach the online users rapidly when compared to that of other sources. It is to be noted that memes can be a video or image and this greatly depends upon the interest of the creators.
Even though today the memes are highly created by many people, the first concept of memes was brought by Richard Dawkins in the year 1976. He used this concept in his book in order to make them some interesting and attractive. In the later years, because of technical advancement, the internet memes are started. Especially, the memes attained greater popularity when the social media came into trend. Today the memes were used everywhere in internet. There are also many websites which are specially designed for sharing memes. One can make use of those websites for sharing their memes or to enjoy the memes created by other creators.
It is to be noted that the memes are not automatically generated through software. It can be created only by the memes creators. The creator designs their memes based on several factors. It may be comedy memes, it might be sensitive or sometimes it may be meaningless. This entirely depends upon the mindset of the creators. Once after creating the memes, they can share it anywhere in interest according to their interest. For example, they can share it in their website or in their social media account. There are also some memes websites where the creative memes will be accepted. In case, if they don’t have better source to share the creators can make use of these websites without any constraint.
Even though there are many different types of memes rounding around internet, the attention towards hilarious memes are considered to be higher. The hilarious memes can also be a double meaningmemes. Such memes will be funnier for the creators as well as for the people who view it. This is the reason why this type of memes is highly trending in the online market in current scenario.
Technology has developed so much today so that everything is very easy to attain in this world. This technology invention has made the changes in the way of smoking and surprisingly it helps the people to stay away from the harmful effects. If you are chain smoker and looking for the right way to get rid of that habit then here is an amazing invention which is called as electronic cigarette. With this great option, you can easily get away from the harmful smoking habit in your life. This type of electronic cigarette actually used in order to let people live their healthy life. It works by filling with the electronic juice in it. The main advantage of using this electronic cigarette is flavors and smoke free use. Besides, you can also get more health and social benefits by this option. If you are willing to use such products then reach out the right online source. There are plenty of online sources obtainable over the internet. But, you have to make sure that you are in the safest source to purchase. Here, buzway is the safest source which can make you purchase e-juice easily and safely.
All about e-juice
E-juice is an electronic juice which is used in the electronic cigarette to give the effect of inhaling the traditional cigarette. Though it has been giving more useful benefits for smokers, how this electronic juice is really made of will be the biggest questions among people. But, describing the way of making this electronic juice is very rare to do because that it differs from brand to brand. Once you started to use this type of electronic cigarette, surely you will give up your harmful and chain smoking habit from your life easily. Apart from health benefits, it also gives more social benefits and such things are,
- No smell
- Ash free use
- There is no accident burns
The important treason for using this e-juice is flavors that are listed below.
These are the flavors which are available in electronic liquids. If you want to know use this type of liquids
Information is a commodity that is playing an important role in the society for each and every single individual to move. Without the information it is not possible to move a single step. Therefore the importance and the effectiveness of information in one word are anecdotal. In keeping up the business information also plays an important role. If you look at the present day business style then you will find that many people are making their foot in the platforms of the internet. The Comrade Web plays an important role in developing their business through information.
They update the website every day
People used to surf the sites of the internet to look for the things that they are searching. If any of the individual found any site that provides information of the products that he/she is searching for then it has been grabbed by the people or the boy or girl at that time. Here lies the importance of the Comrade Web. This company will update your website regularly. If you look at your website than you will find that you are getting much of the traffic that you are longing for.
People will get information regarding your website at the very first
People used to get information of the sites in the internet platforms through the search engines. If your site is updated at the regular intervals then you will see that it tops the list in the search engines. If you do not trade with the thing that people are searching for at the present then also you will find that people used to hook on the products that you trade with for providing them their desired information. In this way this company makes your web business in the top of the search engine list.
People needs information of the packages
Now that’s the big thing that you have to deal with each and every day. People used to hook on that sites that provides them discount on the things that they are longing for. If you provide such discount on the things that you deal with then you will see that people easily gets hooked on your site more than the other sites. This company will provide you in the making of this type of discount that has been liked by the people and also in the increase of your business.
The drones are an unmanned and it is remotely controlled flying machine which can also be used for some certain range of work in addition to simply flying over the ground. But, the drones are used for many works such as video recording and also to take pictures. Some may also used to perform technical or scientific measurements. Some are used to carry weapons and they are also used as a combat tool. Still others are used to carry the post and cargo between the places. the latest development in drones is that to carry the tools for repair and installation purpose.
Basic technology in the drones may consists of some kind of power plant, some kind of steering mechanism, some propulsion mechanism, some kind of sensors to know about the place and the paths and the sender receiver unit to receive and transmit the signals for recording and steering. While you want to own drones, you may found drones in various shapes, and also in all kinds of exotic shapes, such as disks, oblong airships, stars, donuts, triangles, or it can resemble like big birds or insects.
Small and the light drones are typically driven by propellers which are connected to electric motors. These types of propeller motor are powered by batteries. We can also produce very light drones which are powered by solar panels which are used to fly on air for several form of work. some of the drones are held up by gas lighters than in air, like blimp that also makes the drones able to hold itself in air for long time.
It is also possible to construct the drones powered by nuclear energy which are able to stay up for more than a day or week, and especially if these types of drones are partially made as gas filled blimps. Such types of nuclear power source have to be considered as atomic reactors. The energy source can also be special isotopes which radiates intensely and thereby it produce enough heat to power up the drones. Some of these isotopes can radiate mostly rays which can be shielded off without heavy armors.
Since, most use drones for various purpose based on their requirement. For those, they have to choose the right one as their needs. There are many follow me dronesthat can be used for their purpose. Try to find the best drones for your purpose.
In fact enterprise software is also called as the enterprise application software and it is mostly used to stratify the requirement of the organizations which includes internet based user groups, clubs, schools, business, governments and charities. Actually it is the integral part of the information system. Actually enterprise software service provided by the business oriented tools like online payment processing, automated billing system, security, interactive product catalogue and project management. There are more numbers of companies are offered enterprise software development services but people interested to select velvetech technology potential realized company because they are offered premium quality of service to their clients. People can purchase the enterprise software in this company and integrate it into your business.
Services offered by the velvetech technology
In a present world many of the business people are interested to choose velvetech technology because they are offered wide ranges of services to their clients such as custom enterprise software development, application customization, enterprise software integration, maintenance and support. They have experienced programmers so they work with business people to design, develop and implement the customized enterprise software according to your goals and challenges. This kind of the service is suitable to all kinds of companies who might struggle to fit into their business requirements. They can provide excellent solutions to meet your specific requirements such as mobile workforce, cloud computing, enterprise networking, performance optimization and cloud computing. This kind of the service is mostly used in all kinds of applications such as insurance, healthcare, real estate, education, information technology, banking, transportation, food processing and distributing. They used only leading technologies to improve your business growth. They are offered 24/7 support to their clients so that you can get their service whenever you want.
Effective reasons to choose velvetech technology
Actually enterprise software might be categorized by the business function and every type of the enterprise application could be considered as system because of integration with organization business process. Actually velvetech is provided professional service and awesome customer service to their clients. If you choose this company then they can define the EAI strategy, choosing the appropriate software and tools, testing and support, implementation and deployment. Different component of framework might use the different kinds of data language or formats. If you choose the velvetech then surely business people can gain huge numbers of the benefits and you can also go to https://www.velvetech.com/enterprise-software-development/ to get excellent service.
Human behavior and their priorities on the life is a crucial one and difficult to understand. The unhealthy habits attract the people more and obsess them. People all over the world are giving importance to such habits on their life. Smoking is one such habit which literally spoils the health of the people to the maximum extent. The nicotine on the cigarettes has the ability to create cancer and it deposits tar on the lungs. Other than that, adverse changes on the mental health occur among the smokers such as anger depression. It creates a fake relaxation while smoking and literally makes your mental and physical health more possessed. Quit smoking is the best way to save the health.
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In Dublin, not long ago, Richard Dawkins visited a steakhouse called Darwin’s. He was in town to give a talk on the origins of life at Trinity College with the American physicist Lawrence Krauss. In the restaurant, a large model gorilla squatted in a corner and a series of sepia paintings of early man hung in the dining room – though, Dawkins pointed out, not quite in the right chronological order. A space by the bar had been refitted to resemble the interior of the Beagle, the vessel on which Charles Darwin sailed to South America in 1831 and conceived his theory of natural selection. “Oh look at this!” Dawkins said, examining the decor. “It’s terrific! Oh, wonderful.”
Over the years, Dawkins, a zoologist by training, has expressed admiration for Darwin in the way a schoolboy might worship a sporting giant. In his first memoir, Dawkins noted the “serendipitous realisation” that his full name – Clinton Richard Dawkins – shared the same initials as Charles Robert Darwin. He owns a prized first edition of On The Origin of Species, which he can quote from memory. For Dawkins, the book is totemic, the founding text of his career. “It’s such a thorough, unanswerable case,” he said one afternoon. “[Darwin] called it one long argument.” As a description of Dawkins’s own life, particularly its late phase, “one long argument” serves fairly well. As the global face of atheism over the last decade, Dawkins has ratcheted up the rhetoric in his self-declared war against religion. He is the general who chooses to fight on the front line – whose scorched-earth tactics have won him fervent admirers, and ferocious enemies. What is less clear, however, is whether he is winning.
Over dinner – chicken for Dawkins, steak for everyone else – he spoke little. He was anxious to leave early in order to discuss the format of the event with Krauss. Though Dawkins gives a talk roughly once a fortnight, he still obsessively overprepares. On this occasion, there was no need – he and Krauss had put on a similar show the night before at the University of Ulster in Belfast. They had also appeared on a radio talkshow, during which they had attempted to debate a creationist (an “idiot”, in Dawkins’s terminology). “She simply tried to shout down everything Lawrence and I said. So she was in effect going la la la la la.” Dawkins stuck his fingers in his ears as he sang.
Krauss and Dawkins have toured frequently as a double act, partners in a global quest to broadcast the wonder of science and the nonexistence of God. Dawkins has been on this mission ever since 1976, when he published The Selfish Gene, the book that made him famous, which has now sold over a million copies. Since then, he has written another 10 influential books on science and evolution, plus The God Delusion, his atheist blockbuster, and become the most prominent of the so-called New Atheists – a group of writers, including Christopher Hitchens and Sam Harris, who published anti-religion polemics in the years after 9/11.
An hour or so after dinner, the Burke Theatre in Trinity College, a large modern lecture hall with banked seating, was full. After separate presentations, Krauss and Dawkins conversed freely, swapping ideas on the origins of life. As he spoke, Dawkins took on a grandfatherly air, as though passing on hard-earned wisdom. He has always sought to inject beauty into biology, and his voice wavered with emotion as he shifted from dry fact to lyrical metaphor.
Dawkins has the stately confidence of one who has spent half a life behind a lectern. He has aged well, thanks to the determined jaw and carved cheekbones of a 1950s matinee idol. His hair remains in the style that has served him for 70 years, a lopsided sweep. A prominent brow and hawkish stare give him a look of constant urgency, as though he is waiting for everyone to catch up. In Dublin, his outfit was academic-on-tour: jacket, woolly jumper and tie, one of a collection hand-painted by his wife, Lalla Ward, which depict penguins, fish, birds of prey.
At the end of the Trinity event, a crowd of about 40 audience members descended on to the stage, clutching books to be signed. Dawkins eventually retreated into the wings to avoid a crush. One young schoolteacher lingered in the hallway long after the rest of the audience had left, in the hope of shaking Dawkins’s hand. Earlier that day, Dawkins had expressed bewilderment at his own celebrity. “I find the epidemic of selfies disconcerting,” he said. “It’s always, ‘one quick photo.’ One quick. But it never is.” Though he is used to receiving a steady flow of letters from fans of The God Delusion and new converts to atheism, he does not perceive himself as a figurehead. “I don’t need to say if I think of myself as a leader,” he said a few weeks later. “I simply need to say the book has sold three million copies.”
* * *
Dawkins turned 74 in March this year. To celebrate, he had dinner with Ward at Cherwell Boathouse, a smart restaurant overlooking the river in Oxford; the occasion was marred only slightly by a loud-voiced fellow diner, Dawkins recalled, “who quacked like Donald Duck”. An academic of his eminence could, by now, have eased into a distinguished late period: more books, the odd speech, master of an Oxford college, a gentle tending to his legacy. Though he is in a retrospective phase – one memoir published, a second on its way later this year – peaceful retreat from public life has not been the Dawkins way. “Some people might say why don’t you just get on with gardening,” he said. “I think [there’s a] passion for truth and a passion for justice that doesn’t allow me to do that.”
Richard Dawkins: 'immoral' not to abort if foetus has Down's syndrome
Instead, Dawkins remains indefatigably active. He rarely takes a holiday, but travels frequently to give talks – in the last four months he has been to Ireland, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Brazil. Though he says he prefers to speak about science, God inevitably looms. “I suppose some of what I do is an attempt to change people’s minds about religion,” he said, with some understatement, between events in Ireland. “And I do think that’s a politically important thing to be doing.” For Dawkins, who describes his own politics as “vaguely left”, this means a concern for the state of the world, and a desire, ultimately, to eradicate religion from society. In his mission, Dawkins is still, at heart, a teacher. “I would like to leave the world a better place,” he said. “I like to think my science books have had a positive educational effect, but I also want to leave the world a better place in influencing opinion in other fields where there is illogic, obscurantism, pretension.” Religious faith, for Dawkins, is above all a sign of faulty thinking, of ignorance; he wants to educate the ill-informed out of their mistakes. He sees religion, as he once put it on Twitter, as “an organised licence to be acceptably stupid”.
The two strands of Dawkins’s mission – promoting science, demolishing religion – are intended to be complementary. “If they are antagonistic to each other, that would be regrettable,” he said, “but I don’t see why they should be.” But antagonism is part of Dawkins’s daily life. “I suppose some of the passions that I show are more appropriate to a young man than somebody of my age.” Since his arrival on Twitter in 2008, his public pronouncements have become more combative – and, at times, flamboyantly irritable: “How dare you force your dopey unsubstantiated superstitions on innocent children too young to resist?,” he tweeted last June. “How DARE you?”
These days, Dawkins describes himself as “a communicator”. But depending on your point of view, he is also a hero, a heathen, or a liability. Many of his recent statements – on subjects ranging from the lack of Nobel prize-winning Muslim scientists to the “immorality” of failing to abort a foetus with Down’s syndrome – have sparked outraged responses (some of which Dawkins read aloud on a recent YouTube video, which perhaps won him back a few friends). For some, his controversial positions have started to undermine both his reputation as a scientist and his own anti-religious crusade. Friends who vigorously defend both his cause and his character worry that Dawkins might be at risk of self-sabotage. “He could be seriously damaging his long-term legacy,” the philosopher Daniel Dennett said of Dawkins’s public skirmishes. It is a legacy, Dennett believes, that should reflect the “masterpiece” that was The Selfish Gene and Dawkins’s major contribution to our understanding of life. As for Twitter: “I wish he wouldn’t do it,” Krauss said. “I told him that.”
The Dawkins mission has many components: in addition to his books and speeches, there is also the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science (RDFRS), which he founded in 2006. The foundation is run by a team of three in Washington DC and supports multiple projects in the US, such as Openly Secular, a campaign to encourage atheists to proclaim their secularism, and the Teaching Institute for Evolutionary Science, which provides teachers with evolution-themed tools. Dawkins regularly goes on fundraising lecture tours, where his fame comes in useful. Tickets for a tour of the US in June – “an evening with Richard Dawkins”, in theatres in Portland, Oregon, Rochester, Minnesota and Boston – are on sale on the RDFRS website for $35. Access to a VIP reception beforehand is $250. Membership of the “Dawkins circle” costs from $1,000 to $9,999 a year, winning you discounts to the foundation’s online store, invitations to events with “RDFRS personalities” and, at its most expensive, two tickets for an “invitation-only” event with Dawkins himself. The fundraising is led by Robyn Blumner, the full time CEO of his foundation; Dawkins is her celebrity draw. “I’m totally hopeless at asking for money,” said Dawkins. “So I do work extremely hard at trying to be charming.”
Richard Dawkins criticised for Twitter comment about Muslims
In person, Dawkins subverts his reputation for stridency. He is reticent to the point of awkwardness, always scrupulously courteous. (Blumner described how every time they travelled together, he insisted on picking up her luggage from the carousel: “I call him my celebrity valet.”)His interests are broad: music, theatre, poetry. His favourite poets – Betjeman, AE Housman, Yeats – regularly make him cry. “I don’t cry over somebody dying,” he said. “But I cry over a beautifully turned phrase.” (His editor wanted to remove some of the frequent references to weeping from his second memoir, a view that perplexed him. “You might think, as I have a reputation for being callous and cold and unemotional, that to show a sentimental side would be no bad thing.”) At times, he can seem almost childlike, particularly in his enthusiasms. Recently, at home in Oxford, Dawkins gleefully showed off an iPad app that had been made from his children’s book, The Magic of Reality. As he launched a cannonball into space – an illustration of Newton’s explanation of how an object goes into orbit – a recording of his voice, resonantly theatrical, began to play: “Imagine a cannon …”
For Dawkins, the science has always come first; his atheism is simply a natural extension of a lifelong quest to do Darwin’s work on Earth. As for the suggestion his public interventions over the past few years have done more harm than good – both to himself and his cause: “That does worry me,” Dawkins conceded, and yet he cannot quite resist the urge to wade in. “I think there is a curious desire in humans, maybe not all humans but certainly in me, to put things right,” he said. “There’s a joke in the New Yorker or something like that, of a man at a computer. It’s obviously very late and his wife is begging him to come to bed. He’s saying, ‘I can’t come to bed. Somebody’s wrong on the internet.’”
* * *
Dawkins and Ward have lived in a large house in north Oxford since 1996. Ward, an actress famous for her role as the Time Lady Romana in Doctor Who, is his third wife – after Marian Stamp Dawkins, a fellow zoologist at Oxford University, and Eve Barham, the mother of his daughter Juliet. Over the years they have refurbished the house and it is now decorated with Ward’s paintings, leopard-print throws on the sofas and a menagerie of wooden carousel animals. The style is bohemian, eclectic, the taste of someone who prowls souks. Their two dogs, small fluffy creatures called Cuba (a havanese), and Tycho (a coton de Tulear named after a 16th-century Danish astronomer), have the air of pets who run the joint. “Silly dogs,” Dawkins said fondly as they yelped and jumped at his knees.
The dogs are generally more Ward’s concern than Dawkins’s; he is not hugely interested in animals. As a child, he preferred to read books while his nature-loving parents John and Jean were out spotting birds and plants. (Jean, aged 98, lives on the family farm in Chipping Norton, outside Oxford, where Dawkins visits her weekly.) Dawkins was born in Nairobi in 1941; until he was eight, the family lived in colonial east Africa where his father worked as an agricultural officer before joining the King’s African Rifles during the second world war. Even then, surrounded by nature at its most vivid, Dawkins remained uninspired. He remembers, as a young child, being taken in a safari car to watch a pride of lions gnawing at a carcass. While the rest of the group stared in fascination, he stayed on the floor playing with his toy cars. He does, however, know every class and order of the animal kingdom, a product of the classical zoological education he received as an undergraduate at Oxford. If he has trouble sleeping, he mentally scrolls through the alphabet and assigns mammals to letters.
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As a postgraduate, Dawkins excelled at the early stages of the research process, mulling theoretical questions and coming up with hypotheses. But he lacked patience with the laborious hours of data collection or methodical lab work. His interest in zoology was philosophical, not naturalistic: animals were simply the language he’d chosen to learn in order to interpret the world.
On a recent spring afternoon, sitting in his back garden, he explained the evolution of social insects by imitating an ant whose sole function was to guard the entrance hole to a giant bamboo stick in which the ant colony lived. The ant had an elongated head that it used like a door to block the hole and prevent the entrance of intruders. Dawkins hunched in his chair and stuck his head forward, then jerked it back, blocking and unblocking the hole. The performance was strangely captivating, but the ant was simply a means to explain the social behaviour of insects. “Everybody knew that if Richard asked you why you were interested in zoology,” said Kate Lessells, a former student of Dawkins in the 1970s and now a field biologist, “‘Because I like animals,’ was not an answer that was going to go down well.”
Instead, his students knew him as “the computer man”: a pioneer in the developing strand of biology based on the mathematical modelling of animal behaviour. He would regularly stay up all night writing code on the sole computer in the zoology department, an Elliot 803 – at the time a relatively compact machine, now the kind of elaborate object kept for historical interest by the Science Museum. When it broke down, the joke among undergraduates at the time was that Dawkins had been trying to “wire himself into it”.
The language of technology was ubiquitous in The Selfish Gene. Organisms were “survival machines”, bodies “lumbering robots”, nothing more than vehicles for genes. To its critics, the book was an assault on human values: it seemed to suggest, in that stark title alone, that we existed simply to pass on our individual genes and cared nothing for each other, the common good, community. To Dawkins, this was a basic misreading of his argument. Biological nature might be hardwired in its self-interest, but we don’t have to obey its laws. “Let us try to teach generosity and altruism, because we are born selfish,” he wrote in the book’s first chapter. (Looking back now, Dawkins wonders if he should have called the book “The Immortal Gene”, in order to avoid the misunderstanding.) In his next book, The Extended Phenotype (1982), which he regards as his most significant contribution to science, Dawkins explained that he wrote The Selfish Gene while on sabbatical, after returning, high on ideas, from a conference on artificial intelligence. “I genuinely and innocently in my enthusiasm forgot that robots are popularly supposed to be inflexible idiots,” he wrote.
Dawkins has never lost his affection for technology. He is an Apple devotee, and an early adopter; he owns the 47th Tesla electric car to be sold in Britain. In his spare time, he plays the EWI, an electronic musical instrument similar to a clarinet. Recently, he’s been resurrecting a program that he wrote in the 1980s to illustrate the process of evolution, called Blind Watchmaker. It had originally been written in Pascal, an obsolete programming language. A few years ago, Dawkins put a plea on his website for help updating it. A freelance programmer called Alan Canon, based in Louisville, Kentucky, spent months on the project – often working through the night, grateful for the chance to collaborate with his “intellectual hero”, as he put it. Canon was brought up in a fundamentalist Christian household, shed his faith, and later became a dedicated Dawkins fan. (“He says one true thing after another,” Canon said.) As he worked on the programme, the two men exchanged emails daily and Canon came to the conclusion that Dawkins was “a born computer programmer”.
Sitting at the computer in his study, Dawkins gave a demonstration of Blind Watchmaker. First, he clicked on the monochrome image of a tree in the centre of his screen and a handful of slightly different trees appeared – its offspring. He then clicked on one of these surrounding trees and the screen refreshed so that the chosen tree was now central and in turn encircled by a new generation. As he continued to select which new tree to breed from, it was possible to see gradual changes taking place depending on which “child” he had chosen.
The first time Dawkins tested his creation back in the 1980s he saw, after numerous selections, images of entirely new creatures emerge, apparently distant from the original tree and yet its logical descendants: spiders, fish, a fox. He was the breeder; the process, by artificial selection, was evolution. “I distinctly heard the triumphal opening chords of Also sprach Zarathustra – the 2001 theme – in my mind,” he wrote in The Blind Watchmaker (1986). Even now, playing a game he invented 30 years ago, Dawkins became excitable as he unleashed generation after generation, click after click. “Look at these, you see?” he said, pointing at the morphing shapes. “Look how quickly you can evolve!”
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On a walk round Oxford one afternoon in March, Dawkins showed off some old haunts: a court for “real” tennis (the Tudor form of the game) where he’d played a few times, and his undergraduate room at Balliol College. Dawkins remembered little in the way of university antics: he was “mousey” as a student, didn’t lose his virginity until the age of 22, and was, he said, “pusillanimous to a fault” with women.
Most days he cycles in for lunch at New College, where he has been a fellow since 1970. He has no duties in college, and stopped teaching in 1995 when he became the first Charles Simonyi professor for the public understanding of science, but he likes to maintain the connection. He’ll even say grace at dinner, if required: “I have no objection to uttering meaningless statements,” he said, quoting the philosopher AJ Ayer.
In conversation, Dawkins is most comfortable in the mode of an Oxbridge tutorial – as a professor conducting an in-depth discussion with a student. His own students still remember the experience very clearly. “He’d say, ‘I’m going to just focus on what you say and take it very seriously,’” recalled Alan Grafen, now a professor of zoology at Oxford. Dawkins’s strategy as a teacher remains his tactic in public argument: to challenge your logic, or expose what he regards as your lack of it.
In all his books, logic has been both subject and mode of thought. The Blind Watchmaker, Climbing Mount Improbable (1996), The God Delusion and The Greatest Show on Earth (2009) were all battles against the perceived irrationality of creationist thinking. It was not enough to say that he did not approve of religion or its role in society; he needed to prove its impossibility. (The God Delusion contains a 42-page chapter devoted to this enterprise, entitled, “Why There Is Almost Certainly No God”.)
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Sitting in the Enthoven room in New College, Dawkins characterised his own mode of argument – and the controversies that invariably ensue – as guided by the techniques of moral philosophy: “Moral philosophers say things like, ‘What is actually wrong with cannibalism?’ There are two ways of responding to that: one is to shrink back in horror and say, ‘Cannibalism! Cannibalism! We can’t talk about cannibalism!’ The other is to say, ‘Well, actually, what is wrong with cannibalism?’ Then you work it out and you tease it out and you decide yes, actually, cannibalism is wrong, but for the following reasons. So I’d like to think that my moral values at least partly come from reasoning. Trying to suppress the gut reaction as much as possible.”
For a point to be of any worth to Dawkins, he demands both logic and evidence – a standard he applies to even the most personal of experiences. As a child, he experienced sexual abuse: a teacher at his junior school, Chafyn Grove, pulled Dawkins on to his lap and put his hand inside his shorts; at his senior school, Oundle, he fended off older boys who tried to climb into his bed at night. Dawkins has never made much of his experiences at school, he said, because he is certain it had no lasting effect; he has argued – to much outrage, naturally – that being raised in a fundamentalist religious household might be worse than suffering sexual abuse. To make a fuss about his own case, he believes, would be belittling to children whose lives had been more obviously tainted by similar treatment and it would also be irrational, unsupported by empirical evidence: “I’ve never had dreams, never had nightmares.”
The scientific method, for Dawkins, is not merely essential to understanding the physical world; it can be deployed to help answer moral questions as well. “Human society, human love, human hate, art, music, poetry – these are all things which are the products of human brains, and brains are the products of ultimately scientifically explicable phenomena. But not in practice explicable, because it’s too difficult, it’s too complicated.” There is still room in Dawkins’s worldview for mystery – about the nature of human consciousness, for example – but that mystery is neither supernatural nor ultimately inexplicable.
The author Philip Pullman, one of Dawkins’s friends, recalled a discussion the two once had about what you might tell a terminally ill child about death. Dawkins “was very unwilling, or seemed to be, to say that it would be OK at that point to tell a fairytale about heaven,” Pullman said. “He’s a man of immense principle; he’s sea-green incorruptible.”
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In recent years, the following sequence of events has become something of an online soap, regular and predictable: Dawkins tweets, is criticised for being deeply offensive, and then writes a long article to explain what he actually meant, which usually is not too far from what he said in the first place, but expressed with slightly more nuance. Since Dawkins joined Twitter seven years ago, he has amassed more than a million followers. He tweets assiduously, attracted by the medium’s limitations: “I’m sort of mildly intrigued by the art form of précising something into 140 characters; it’s not an easy thing to do. And there’s a certain satisfaction in the skill of doing it.”
His efforts are not always appreciated. On occasion, his online utterances descend into farce, as when he took to Twitter in 2013 to rage over having an item confiscated by airport security, declaring: “Bin Laden has won, in airports of the world every day. I had a little jar of honey, now thrown away by rule-bound dundridges. STUPID waste.” Dawkins responded to the ensuing mockery with a frustrated attempt at clarification: “Do you idiots seriously think I give a damn about my stupid honey? It’s the PRINCIPLE I care about. Get it? Principle, not honey, principle.” (As if in tribute to a concept he invented – the meme, first introduced in The Selfish Gene – Dawkins’s own tweets have inspired endless online parodies: a year after the unfortunate airport episode, someone wished him a “happy honeyversary”.) Even on more serious topics, Dawkins cannot quite fathom how often he finds himself at the centre of online firestorms. “I do seem to be horribly susceptible to being misunderstood,” he said.
“Quite a lot of what I do on Twitter is try to raise a discussion point,” he said. “It’s as though I was doing a seminar with students and said, ‘Here’s an interesting thought, X. What do you think about X?’” He is then mystified when his hypothesis is met by a chorus of criticism and abuse. “Very often I’m not making a point, but asking a question.”Sometimes his questions seem genuinely curious: “Whistling requires precise tongue positioning, like finger on violin string. Yet most can whistle tunes sans training. Interesting?” But often they are more rhetorical: “Truly? Is Sweden such a fatuously ridiculous country, bending over backwards to accommodate religious idiocy?”